Over time, high blood sugar levels associated with diabetes can damage nerves and blood vessels. This can spur the buildup of fat on blood vessel walls, which can impede blood flow and promote atherosclerosis. Having diabetes increases one's risk of cardiovascular disease considerably. Three quarters of those with diabetes die of heart or blood vessel disease.
Your body's ability to use glucose (blood sugar) properly can be tested by getting a fasting blood glucose test, which is a snapshot of your blood sugar at the time, or by getting a hemoglobin A1C test, which measures overall blood glucose over the previous three months. Both can be insightful. "There is data to suggest that there is a significant decrease in the risk of heart and vascular disease with every 1 percent reduction in hemoglobin A1C," says Whiteson.
Bottom line: The more controlled, the better. The normal range for a fasting blood glucose test is typically less than 100 milligrams per deciliter; prediabetes is indicated by a level between 100 and 125 mg/dL and diabetes by a reading of 126 mg/dL or above. A normal hemoglobin A1C level is below 6 percent, and those with diabetes should aim to keep it under 7 percent.
(credits to YahooNews)